Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A. website uses session cookies which are required for users to navigate appropriately and safely. Session cookies created by the Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A. website navigation do not affect users' privacy during their browsing experience on our website, as they do not entail processing their personal identification data. Session cookies are not permanently stored and indeed are cancelled when the connection to the Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A. website is terminated.
More info


The LILIT facility was set up to develop advanced micro- and nano-patterning technologies to foster the advanced research in ULSI semiconductor device manufacturing, micro-photonic, magnetic-information storage, biological research, MEMS and other wide varieties of applications.

The LILIT facility operates for a wide range of lithography research and maintains comprehensive state-of-the-art infrastructure comprising advanced lithography tools (E-beam, photolithography, FIB, nano-imprint etc) and many other pieces of processing and characterization equipment.

We at LILIT had developed two dedicated lithographic beam lines for soft and hard x-rays for micro- and nano-fabrication activities for their applications in engineering, science and bio-medical applications.

We are pursuing our research in a wide area of research nano-technology with numerous collaborations with research groups from industry, national laboratories and universities aswellwith the European and international research community.

Browse our Publications

Read our Highlights

LILIT activities

X-ray Lithography

X-ray lithography having short wavelengths (below 1 nm), overcome the diffraction limits of optical lithography, allowing smaller feature sizes. If the X-ray source isn't collimated, as with a synchrotron radiation, elementary collimating mirrors or diffractive lenses are used in the place of the refractive lenses used in optics. The X-rays illuminate a mask placed in proximity of a resist-coated wafer. The X-rays are broadband, typically from a compact synchrotron radiation source, allowing rapid exposure. Deep X-ray lithography (DXRL) uses yet shorter wavelengths on the order of 0.1 nm and modified procedures such as the LIGA process, to fabricate deep and even three-dimensional structures.

Electron Beam Lithography (EBL) 

EBL is the practice of emitting a beam of electrons in a patterned fashion across a surface covered with a film called resist, exposing the resist and of selectively removing either exposed or non-exposed regions of the resist (developing). The purpose is to create very small structures in the resist that can subsequently be transferred to the substrate material, often by etching. The primary advantage of electron beam lithography is that it is one of the ways to beat the diffraction limit of light and make features in the nanometer regime. This form of maskless lithography has found wide usage in photomask-making used in photolithography, low-volume production of semiconductor components, and research & development.

Focused Ion Beam Lithography (FIB)

FIB is a technique used particularly in the semiconductor industry, materials science and increasingly in the biological field for site-specific analysis, deposition, and ablation of materials. However, while the SEM uses a focused beam of electrons to image the sample in the chamber, an FIB setup uses a focused beam of ions instead. FIB can also be incorporated in a system with both electron and ion beam columns, allowing the same feature to be investigated using either of the beams. FIB should not be confused with using a beam of focused ions for direct write lithography (such as in proton beam writing). These are generally quite different systems where the material is modified by other mechanisms.

Nano Imprint Lithography (NIL)

Nanoimprint lithography is a method of fabricating nanometer scale patterns. It is a simple nanolithography process with low cost, high throughput and high resolution. It creates patterns by mechanical deformation of imprint resist and subsequent processes. The imprint resist is typically a monomer or polymer formulation that is cured by heat or UV light during the imprinting. Adhesion between the resist and the template is controlled to allow proper release.

Last Updated on Friday, 06 April 2012 08:40